FANDOM


Group #1Edit

West Nile Virus in the United States and Uganda.

United States

Intrapersonal Factors:

Factor 1: The lack of use of insect repellant that is EPA approved when outdoors is a risk factor for becoming infected by West Nile Virus. (CDC: West Nile Virus- What You Need To Know. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm), Loreli Owen 

Factor 2: Lack of long sleeves and pants during dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes are most active. (CDC: West Nile Virus - What You Need To Know. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: The individual should minimize risk of being bit by mosquito. Additionally, reduce standing water in your yard, and make sure all windows and doors have screens are in good shape and repair. West Nile virus. (2003). Nevada RNformation, 12(4), 25. Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: Working or spending time outdoors, puts you at greater risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito. Mayo Clinic Staff.(2012).West nile virus: Risk factors. Retrieved from:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=risk-factors Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Fear of traveling abroad and contracting disease. Uninvited: Infectious diseases creeping in from abroad. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.economist.com/node/21561922 Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: West Nile Virus may be spread through mother-to-child breastfeeding. Women that are carriers of the virus may give it to their child if the breast milk is infected by the virus. (CDC: West Nile Virus: What You Need To Know. 2012. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm#pregnancySayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Lack of education as to where and when mosquitos are most abundant (ie; anywhere at dusk including beach, woods, backyard; outdoors in general.) Avoid unnecessary outdoor activity when mosquitoes are most prevalent, such as at dawn, dusk and early evening. Jaslow, Ryan. (2012). West Nile Virus outbreak: How to protect yourself. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57495613-10391704/west-nile-virus-outbreak-how-to-protect-yourself/ Miranda Scott

Interpersonal Factors:

Factor 1: The perception that using insect repellent containing DEET is dangerous because it can have serious side effects like seizures, coma, and even death makes it harder to prevent mosquito bites. (Medline Plus: Bug Spray Poisoning. (2012). U.S. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002763.htm), Loreli Owen 

Factor 2: The need for parents to keep children’s wading pools or outdoor toys empty to get rid of breeding sites. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: The use of mosquito repellent and being re-applied regularly, especially in the more susceptible age groups is a good way to minimize risk. West Nile virus. (2003). Nevada RNformation, 12(4), 25. Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed WNV infection, or handling specimens from them, should implement standard infection control precautions. Samples taken from people and animals with suspected WNV infection should be handled by trained staff working in suitably equipped laboratories. WHO.(2013). West nile virus. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Lack of knowledge of peak times of mosquitoes. Friis, R. H. (2012). Essentials of environmental health (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning LLC. Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: Being able to reduce the amount of time spent outside with the family between certain times of the day such as from dusk until dawn, will limit the number of mosquito bites that people may come in contact with. (Michigan.gov. 2013. Emerging Disease Issues: Diseases that May Affect Humans and Animals. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/emergingdiseases/0,4579,7-186-25805_25820-75445--,00.html) Sayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Unclog roof gutters; major breeding ground for mosquitos. (Associated Press Email (2012). 2 Killed In Colorado From West Nile Virus. 11KKTV News. Retrieved from: http://www.kktv.com/news/elevenforhealth/headlines/2-Killed-In-Colorado-From-West-Nile-Virus-168530046.html?site=mobile#.UWmmf1f7FcQ) Miranda Scott

Organizational Factors:

​Factor 1: Jobs that require people to work outdoors may create a higher instance of disease if workers aren't protected. (DIRECT FROM NURSINGCENTER.COM Holcomb, S. (2005). This just in: Guidelines for West Nile Virus. The American Journal of Primary Health, 30(9), 7-14.), Loreli Owen

Factor 2: Lack of a universal risk model (warning model) such as DYCAST that can help predict the risk of West Nile Virus transmission to humans. (Carney, R. M., Ahearn, S. C., McConchie, A., Glaser, Jean, C., Barker, C., & ... Kramer, V. (2011). Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1445-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100411), Courtney Jackson

​Factor 3: The CDC has collaborated with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) to provide guidance to communities to establish or expand integrated mosquito control programs. Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place? Journal of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44. Ashley Ferrara

​Factor 4: Some efforts to control the mosquito population involve spraying insecticides over a wide area. Laws in some states were implemented to basically discontinue the spray of insecticides if you do not have a permit. Hodge, James.(2002).West Nile virus in United States: A state of art Assessment of Law and Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Research/PDF/wnv.pdf. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Working with animals (birds or horses) may create a higher susceptibility of disease if workers aren't protected. World Health Organization. (2011). West Nile virus [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/ Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: The CDC is determined to rid the nation of WNV by managing and maintaining ArboNET, which is a nation-wide electronic surveillance system in order to share information with each other about WNV and other arboviral diseases (CDC: West Nile Virus: What You Need To Know. 2012. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm#pregnancySayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Lack of ariel insecticide spray prevention method used in most American cities that help limit mosquito population in general. Prevention. (2012). West Nile Virus. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=preventionMiranda Scott  

Community Factors:

Factor 1: The need for communities to coordinate control programs for the mosquito population by destroying sites where mosquitoes breed. (WHO: West Nile Virus. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/), Loreli Owen 

Factor 2: Lack of established or expanded integrated mosquito control programs to improve the ability to detect and prevent West Nile Virus outbreaks.(Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44.), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: The way the community can limit risk is by assessing risk of keeping infected mosquitoes from biting people. Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place? Journal of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44. Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: Effective prevention of human WNV infections depends on the development of comprehensive, integrated mosquito surveillance and control programs in areas where the virus occurs. Studies should identify local mosquito species that play a role in WNV transmission, including those that might serve as a “bridge” from birds to human beings. Emphasis should be on integrated control measures including source reduction (with community participation), water management, chemicals, and biological control methods. WHO.(2013). West Nile virus. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: The need for communities to coordinate control programs for the mosquito population by managing water supply (empty standing water) Friis, R. H. (2012). Essentials of environmental health (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning LLC. Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: Establishing education for families, health care providers, and children that are in areas where mosquitoes are heavily populated and allowing the families to be more aware of the ways in which to prevent mosquitoes from swarming a home. (Michigan.gov. 2013. Emerging Disease Issues: Diseases that May Affect Humans and Animals. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/emergingdiseases/0,4579,7-186-25805_25820-75445--,00.htmlSayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Communities (neighborhoods, parks, road side medians, etc.) should be required to plant certain shrubbery that is known to ward off mosquitos such as Lemon Grass, Citronella, Horse Mint, Marigolds, Ageratum, and Catnip. 5 Easy to Grow Mosquito-Repelling Plants (2011). Earth Easy. Organic Garden. Retrieved from: http://eartheasy.com/blog/2011/04/5-easy-to-grow-mosquito-repelling-plants/Miranda Scott 

Societal Factors:

Factor 1: Poor public health infrastructure that leads to a lack of information and education of prevention of WNV. (DIRECT FROM OXFORD JOURNAL Gubler, D.J. (2007). The Continuing Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere. Journals of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 45(8), 1039-1046.), Loreli Owen

Factor 2: Lack of a West Nile Virus Vaccine. (Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44.), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: People over 50 years of age have the highest risk of developing a severe illness because as we age, our bodies have a harder time fighting off disease. People with compromised immune systems are also at increased risk. However, anyone can get the virus. West Nile virus. (2003). Nevada RNformation, 12(4), 25. Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: The extent of an outbreak is influenced by the number of mosquitoes and how infectious they are, the population of susceptible bird species, rainfall and temperature. Bringing "all these things together in the right combination at the right time facilitates that the virus go faster and to a greater degree in areas of the country," said Roger Nasci, chief of arboviral diseases at the CDC. Being aware of geography and leaders of society should make it top priority that the public is aware of ways to prevent the spread of virus. At manytime leaders tend to do so by failure of proper techniques in monitoring or implementing programs that are proven effective in stopping the spread of the virus. Sun, Lena. (2012). West nile virus cases accelerating in U.S. Retrieved from: http://www.cleburnetimesreview.com/local/x2056631585/West-Nile-virus-cases-accelerating-in-U-S. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Lack of information on treatment if infected. World Health Organization. (2011). West Nile virus [Fact sheet]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/ Sam Vaccaro 

Factor 6: The society should understand that people of all ages may contract West Nile Virus in any situation or time of year. Therefore, people should take into consideration that severe neurologic disease due to West Nile Virus infection should always be considered in persons that have an unexplained occurrence of encephalitis and meningitis. (CDC: West Nile Virus: Clinical Description. 2012. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/clinicians/clindesc.htm#clinsuspicionSayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: A vaccine is available to protect horses from West Nile virus. No vaccine is available for humans, but work to develop a human vaccine is under way. Prevention. (2012). West Nile Virus. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=preventionMiranda Scott

Uganda

Intrapersonal Factors

Factor 1: Lack of use of insect repellant that is EPA approved when outdoors is a risk factor for becoming infected by West Nile Virus. (CDC: West Nile Virus- What You Need To Know. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm), Loreli Owen 

Factor 2: Lack of treating clothing with Permethrin to repel mosquitoes. (Mosquito bites: Prevention - MayoClinic.com. (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mosquito-bites/DS01075/DSECTION=prevention), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: Many mosquitoes are most active at dusk and dawn. Be sure to use insect repellent and wear long sleeves and pants at these times or consider staying indoors during these hours. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: People living in hot climate, rural areas, and around areas of wetland who do not have access to insect repellent, mosquito nets, or proper clothing are susceptible toMoboguje, Akin.(1998).The environmental challenges in Sub Saharan Africa. Retrieved from: rhttp://web.mit.edu/africantech/www/articles/EnvChall.htm. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Fear of stigmatization of contracting disease or people knowing that they have it. Hotez, P. J. (2011). The neglected tropical diseases and the neglected infections of poverty: Overview of their common features, global disease burden and distribution, new control tools, and prospects for disease elimination. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK62521/ Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: Lack of use of protective clothing while slaughtering animals for consumption that are infected is a huge risk to take when there is lack of education for the treatment of WNV. (WHO. 2011. World Health Organization. West Nile Virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/) Sayfa Sarivannara


Factor 7: If necessary to go outside at a mosquito high time, wear clothing that covers all visible skin, and even cover self with mosquito netting if possible.   ( Prevention. (2012). West Nile Virus. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=prevention) Miranda Scott

Interpersonal Factors

Factor 1: With so many recent outbreaks in Africa, the perception that you cannot avoid getting bit by mosquitoes does not help in prevention. (DeNoon, D.J. West Nile Outbreak on Track to Be Worst Ever. (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/news/20120822/west-nile-outbreak-may-be-worst-ever). Loreli Owen

Factor 2: Keeping standing water away from homes to reduce breeding grounds for mosquitoes. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: Change the water in pet dishes and replace the water in bird baths weekly. Drill holes in tire swings so water drains out. Keep children's wading pools empty and on their sides when they aren't being used. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htmAshley Ferrara

Factor 4: Though on a rare occasion, the west Nile virus can me transmitted from infected mothers to infants by breast-feeding and intrauterine routes. In remote areas in Uganda babies can be at great risk.(2012). West Nile virus. Retrieved from: https://www.clinicalkey.com/topics/neurology/west-nile-virus.htmlHarrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Lack of knowledge of peak times of mosquitoes. Friis, R. H. (2012). Essentials of environmental health (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning LLC. Sam Vaccaro


Factor 6: Families should keep their children away from being exposed to dead birds as well as infected horses. By keeping children away from these infected animals, they are less likely to be exposed to the WNV. Especially since some of the children may be immune-compromised. (Michigan.gov. 2013. Emerging Disease Issues: Diseases that May Affect Humans and Animals. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/emergingdiseases/0,4579,7-186-25805_25820-75445--,00.html) Sayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Limit food scraps that will attract birds; birds such as crows are known to be carriers of the West Nile Virus. The cycle begins there and is carried to humans when a mosquito bites an infected bird and ends when the mosquito bites a human. If primary preventative measures are followed, the WNV may be limited. McLean, R.G., Ubico, S. R., Docherty, D. E., Hansen, W. R., Sileo, L., McNamara, T. S., (2006). West Nile Virus Transmission and Ecology in Birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (951). 54–57. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb02684.x/full Miranda Scott 

Organizational Factors 

Factor 1: Jobs that require people to work outdoors may create a higher instance of disease if workers aren't protected. (DIRECT FROM NURSINGCENTER.COM Holcomb, S. (2005). This just in: Guidelines for West Nile Virus. The American Journal of Primary Health, 30(9), 7-14.), Loreli Owen

Factor 2: Lack of a universal risk model (warning model) such as DYCAST that can help predict the risk of West Nile Virus transmission to humans. (Carney, R. M., Ahearn, S. C., McConchie, A., Glaser, Jean, C., Barker, C., & ... Kramer, V. (2011). Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1445-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100411), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: The CDC has collaborated with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) to provide guidance to communities to establish or expand integrated mosquito control programs. Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place? Journal of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44. Ashley Ferrara

Factor 4: The mismanagement of a grant of $51m (sh137b) to support the distribution of mosquito nets in is a huge risk factor that influence that spread of the virus throughout the country. Osike, Felix.(2012).Sh137b for mosquito nets vanishes. Retrieved from: http://www.newvision.co.ug/news/637853-sh137b-for-mosquito-nets-vanishes.html. Harrison Stubblefield


Factor 5: Working with animals (birds or horses) may create a higher susceptibility of disease if workers aren't protected. World Health Organization. (2011). West Nile virus [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/ Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: The World Health Organizations are implementing surveillance for countries that are having multiple outbreaks of West Nile Virus. (WHO. 2011. World Health Organization. West Nile Virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/) Sayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Lack of ariel insecticide spray prevention method used in most American cities that help limit mosquito population in general. Prevention. (2012). West Nile Virus. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=preventionMiranda Scott


Community Factors

Factor 1: The need for communities to coordinate control programs for the mosquito population by destroying sites where mosquitoes breed. (WHO: West Nile Virus. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/), Loreli Owen 

Factor 2: Lack of established or expanded integrated mosquito control programs to improve the ability to detect and prevent West Nile Virus outbreaks. (Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44.), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: Community spraying for mosquitoes may also prevent mosquito breeding. http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/west-nile-virus/overview.html#PreventionAshley Ferrara

Factor 4: Being that Uganda is located in Sub- Sarah Africa were the highest prevalence of mosquitos are located due to its geography, it is important that there should be a wide distribution of mosquito nets and programs to educate the people on prevention. Realistically parts of Uganda are unable to do so due to lack of funding. Moboguje, Akin.(1998).The environmental challenges in Sub Saharan Africa. Retrieved from: rhttp://web.mit.edu/africantech/www/articles/EnvChall.htm. Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: The need for communities to coordinate control programs with use of mosquito nets. World Health Organization. (2011). West Nile virus [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/ Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: The ability to warn the people of Uganda of newer infections that are found in birds as well as horses can help aid in early detection and warnings for the people to stay away from the birds, horses, and mosquitoes. (WHO. 2011. World Health Organization. West Nile Virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/) Sayfa Sarivannara

Factor 7: Keep communities/villages at a safe distance from ponds where mosquitoes may breed. (Uganda Ministry of Health, Malaria Control Programme. (2006). Uganda Malaria Control Strategic Plan 2005/06 – 2009/10. Retrieved from http://www.rbm.who.int/countryaction/nsp/uganda.pdf) Miranda Scott

Societal Factors

Factor 1: Poor public health infrastructure that leads to a lack of information and education of prevention of WNV. (DIRECT FROM OXFORD JOURNAL Gubler, D.J. (2007). The Continuing Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere. Journals of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 45(8), 1039-1046.), Loreli Owen

Factor 2: Lack of a West Nile Virus Vaccine. (Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health, 75(8), 42-44.), Courtney Jackson

Factor 3: Testing of donated blood and organs is currently being evaluated to ensure uninfected patients don’t become infected. http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/west-nile-virus/overview.html#PreventionAshley Ferrara

Factor 4: The spread of the virus is more devastating in that there are no Vaccines. This leaves the general public at risk in that it can lead to a high prevalence rate, morbidity rate, and mortality rate. This heightened even more when there is lack of funding in programs to control and prevent the spread of the Virus.(2012). West nile virus. Retrieved from: https://www.clinicalkey.com/topics/neurology/west-nile-virus.html.Harrison Stubblefield

Factor 5: Lack of information on treatment if infected. World Health Organization. (2011). West Nile virus [Fact sheet]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/ Sam Vaccaro

Factor 6: To keep the society healthy, there should be a surveillance on those that have a weakened immune system because those people that have a weaker immune system are at a greater risk especially if they are younger and not vaccinated, or older due to a compromised immunity.(Mayo Clinic Staff. 2012. Mayo Clinic. West Nile Virus: Risk Factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=risk-factors) Sayfa Sarivannara\

Factor 7: Unable to afford mosquito bite prevention products (such as repellants, netting, etc). (Outreach Uganda. (2009). Empowering the Poor People of Uganda. Retrieved from http://www.outreachuganda.org/Uganda_Information.htm) Miranda Scott


Group Member Paragraphs

The West Nile Virus has been a significant issue for the Public Health system since its discovery in 1937 in Uganda, Africa. One of the best prevention methods against becoming infected with West Nile Virus is the regular usage of EPA approved insect repellant containing DEET, (CDC: West Nile Virus- What You Need To Know. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://wwwcdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_.htm). According to the National Pesticide Telecommunications Network (2000), the chemicals in DEET repel mosquitoes that could be carrying the virus by disturbing their ability to locate animals and humans to feed on, (Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/deetgen.pdf). In the United States we have Public Health and Safety programs that create awareness through ad campaigns on television commercials and Internet sites. They teach us that we should use bug spray when we are outdoors for extended periods of time to prevent getting bit by mosquitos that could be carrying diseases. Although there has been bad press in recent years about the chemicals in DEET, we still know that we need to protect ourselves. These kinds of programs do not work for everyone though. According to The World Bank, (2013) Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/country/uganda, Uganda is still a developing nation therefore, they do not have the same luxuries that we do in the United States such as television and Internet. Trying to run a Public Health campaign in a country where having a television in every home is not the standard would not seem very appropriate, however there are a lot of volunteers passing out mosquito nets and providing safety education. Ad campaigns may not be the way for Uganda but as long as we have people willing to go overseas and lend a helping hand we are able to make a difference with other programs. (Loreli Owen.)

West Nile Virus is a growing public health issue here in the United States, but first began as an issue in Uganda. From the years 1999-2012 there were more than 36,000 cases of West Nile Virus reported to the CDC, but it is estimated that somewhere between two million and four million people in the United States have been infected with West Nile Virus since 1999. (Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health75(8), 42-44.) A similarity between the United States and Uganda on the societal level is that there is a lack of a vaccine for the virus. (Nasci, R. (2013). DIRECT FROM CDC. Monitoring and Controlling West Nile Virus: Are Your Prevention Practices in Place?. Journal Of Environmental Health75(8), 42-44.) A difference between the two countries at an intrapersonal level is that in Uganda an issue is the lack of treating clothing with certain repellants such as Permethrin and in the United States an intrapersonal factor is the lack of wearing long sleeve clothing when mosquitoes are most active. (CDC: West Nile Virus - What You Need To Know. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm) The CDC uses a system known as ArboNET to help with surveillance of the virus. ArboNET is a nationwide system that allows states to share information about West Nile Virus and other arboviral diseases. ((2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm) Surveillance programs like this one is very important. Without a vaccination, surveillance is the key to prevention of West Nile Virus. If states are aware of outbreaks in other states they can prepare and help to prevent further cases of West Nile Virus. This program would be effective in Uganda, but it would be costly. Surveillance systems can be costly, but they reduce the rate of infection and can give communities about two to four weeks to implement adult mosquito control. With a program like ArboNET put into place, Uganda could improve on their community factors that contribute to West Nile Virus. Even though this program could help with the community factors, it still would not cover other factors such as intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. Creating a program like this in Uganda would be very helpful and could help predict future cases of West Nile Virus like we are able to in the United States. (Courtney Jackson)

West Nile is a serious Public Health threat not only to Uganda, but also here in the United States. Although that the United States is at all time highs for this disease, Uganda is the country where the disease in fact originated. Some of the factors are more extreme and would be beneficial for both countries such as: ensuring proper mosquito repellent at all times, avoid prolonged exposure to the outdoors between dusk and dawn in addition to eliminating standing water. In the United States although we should be cautions of our pets becoming contaminated we need not lose sleep over the idea. Uganda often has tray animals and will leave water dishes out attracting infected mosquitoes that could contaminate an animal as well as human. The US organization that oversees west Nile disease is ASTHO, which has recently declared the need for stricter guidelines for how to treat and minimize the spread of infected mosquitoes. I think that the ASTHO is extremely appropriate here in the United States. By already implementing various policies such as PSA to all to wear mosquito repellent as well as to inform everyone that long clothing should be worn outdoors.  I think that this policy could work in Uganda in the sense of education is the best teacher. I am unsure if the citizens of Uganda would have access to mosquito repellent etc. but I feel that we as a country and ASTHO as an organization should better arm our less equipped nations.(Ashley Ferrara)

The spread of West Nile Virus is significant to public health In United States and Uganda in that as the world changes due to global warming, places that experience intense heat annually or seasonally and places containing a lot of moisture are susceptible to getting the virus at an alarming rate. Other factors like poverty, Lack of funds, lack of programs focused on prevention, and mismanagement of programs also contribute to the spread of the West Nile Virus. All of this raises a public health concern in that there are is not vaccine to cure the virus. That raises a huge public health concern because it implies, and increase rate of the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rate of those effected with the virus. What is even more alarming is that it has potential to turn into a pandemic if the proper steps are not taken to prevent the spread of the west nile virus. Factors that contribute to the spread of the west nile virus in Uganda I feel are more severe in that Uganda is located in Sub Sahara Africa, which is known to breed a large amount of mosquitos due to its environmental makeup and it is a third world country. United States has more of an access to care compare to Uganda. Amongst many the commonalities that United States and Uganda share as far as contributing factors are hot weather, work that requires you to be outside for majority of the time, and mismanagement of programs(Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). CDC helps support states develop and carry out improved mosquito prevention and control programs (CDC, 2012). CDC also manages surveillance of the Virus and makes sure information is distributed statewide (CDC, 2012).There job is to make sure that the appropriate steps are taken to prevent the spread of west nile virus efficiently and effectively. The program is meeting clients in that it is effectively controlling the spread of the virus by implementing effective strategies such as the distribution of information on the spread of the virus State wide for better modes of surveillance, controlling and monitoring. The program is governmentally funded which serves the best interest of the public and the cost effectiveness are very sensitive to change (Zohrabian, Armineh, 2006). The program is effective in that areas that were experiencing the problem had a reduction in the prevalence and incident rate of those contracting the virus. Implementing this program into Uganda will be very effect although it has its pros and cons. For the pros, it will be effective in that the implementation of programs that serves as a control or prevention, surveillance and the relaying of information between countries in that it will help drastically reduce the rates of the virus. On the contrary the cons are the lack of funding and lack of accessibility to care and technology in certain areas of Uganda. 

CDC.(2012). West nile virus: What you need to know. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm

Mayo Clinic Staff.(2012).West nile virus: Risk factors. Retrieved from:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=risk-factors

Zohrabian, Armineh.(2006). Cost effectiveness of west nile virus vaccination. Retrieved from: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/3/pdfs/05-0782.pdf (Harrison Stubblefield)

West Nile Virus is a significant public health problem in Uganda and the United States. Although it began in Uganda, it appeared in the United States as people began traveling abroad. Citizens of both countries are unaware of treatment if someone is infected. Most people who become infected are asymptomatic, and there is no vaccine or treatment available. Communities need to coordinate control programs. In the United States, it is important for people to know the peak times that mosquitoes are active during the day. Also, by eliminating standing water, mosquito breeding sites are destroyed. By doing this, there are fewer mosquitos, so the program is appropriate. It is more difficult to control the water supply in Uganda. It would be more appropriate to control the mosquito population with nets in classrooms, worksites etc. Although, mosquitoes are a natural part of the environment, we need to keep people safe from West Nile Virus. (Sam Vaccaro)

The significance of the public health risks associated with the U.S. and Uganda is that there is no way that people can prevent, or be vaccinated for West Nile Virus. Not being able to be vaccinated to control this disease may be debilitating to the health of people. There are mild to severe symptoms associated with WNV. The symptoms range from having no symptoms to neurological disorders that are permanent. There are even instances in which people are unaware that they have the disease because they do not show signs of symptoms, but it is great that it cannot be contracted from person to person just by touch. The people of Uganda are more susceptible to being diagnosed with this disease. The virus began in Uganda, but then it migrated to the U.S. due to mosquitoes and the migration of birds. “ArboNet is a surveillance system” (CDC. 2012) that is in control of informing people of WNV detections. It is very helpful when attempting to keep the population and veterinarians updated on the WNV occurrences. I don’t think that ArboNet would help Uganda, but I do believe that the WHO is attempting to help other countries around the world such as Uganda to help target WNV and prevent it by utilizing surveillance. (Sayfa Sarivannara)


              West Nile Virus is a disease that has affected millions of people all over the globe, including here in America. The virus was originally isolated in the West Nile region of Uganda in a native woman (Craven, 2001). The West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. This cycle becomes a threat to humans, and other animals such as horses, when a mosquito bites an infected bird. The mosquito then releases the virus via ‘bite’, into the victim. Humans have a higher the risk of getting bit by a WNV positive carrier when mosquito populations are at their highest which usually tends to be in dark damp areas. WNV like many other diseases has traveled from continent to continent by means of human transportation such as airplanes and boats.

The virus eventually made its way to the U.S circa 1999. In North America, the virus has been known to cause meningitis, encephalitis, and poliomyelitis, resulting in disease and even death (Kramer, 2009). America has established several organizations and programs to counteract the growing mosquito population and have thus far been successful. However, if unlucky enough to contract the virus, there is nothing that can be done other than treating the symptoms (such as headaches, fever, and pain). Vaccines are available to animals such as horses that are found capable of contracting the virus but a vaccine for humans is still in the works (CDC, 2012).

Center for Disease Control (2012). Question and Answers. West Nile Virus Vaccinations. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/wnv_vaccine.htm?list=symptoms.htm

Cravem, R. B., Roehrig, J. T., (2001). West Nile virus. JAMA 286(6). 651-653. doi:10.1001/jama.286.6.651.

Kramer, L. D., Li, J., Shi, P., (2009) West Nile virus. The Lancet Neurology 6(2) 171-181. Retrieved from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1474442207700303?via=sd (Miranda Scott)



Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.